Calories should be sufficient to maintain appropriate body weight for a given height.
Carbohydrate should constitute 55-75% of calories.
10-15% of the total calories (min. 1 gm per kg of ideal body weight)
Total fat intake between 15-35% of total calories.
Cholesterol should not exceed 300mg/day in the diet.
Saturated fat should be less than 10% of the total calories
Polyunsaturated fat should not exceed 8% of the total calories
MUFA (10 – 15 % of total calories)
P/S ratio between 0.8-1.0
Trans Fatty acids should be avoided
Linoleic acid(n6) between 3-7% of the calories
Alpha-Linoleic acid(n3) not less than 1% of calories.
LA/ALNA ratio between 5-10
Low saturated fat, low cholesterol, high fiber
Emphasize fruits and vegetables, low fat dairy products, whole grains, nuts.
Restrict Sodium intake to < 2.4 g ( 6g salt /day)
Moderate restriction in total fat; sucrose and alcohol-restricted, calories to achieve
or maintain ideal body weight
30% of calories from fat
increase intake of complex carbohydrates
Restrict concentrated sweets
Restrict sodium and saturated fat
If CHF is present, fluid restriction may be necessary
Fat similar to Hypercholesterolemia
Congestive Heart Failure (CHF)
Low saturated fat
Acute CHF-2-3g sodium/day
Severe restriction- 0.5-1.0g/day
Diabetes Mellitus, Type-2, non-insulin dependant
Low fat, low cholesterol, high fiber diet
Specify the calorie level
Include whole grains, fruits, vegetables & low fat dairy.
For glycemic control, total amount of carbohydrate is more important.
Low glycemic index diet s may be considered
Avoid intake of organ meats, liver, kidney & certain sea foods, mushroom, dried
fruits & nuts
Consume liberal amounts of fluids
Specify calories to achieve 1-2lb of weight loss per week. Less than 1000 kcal for
women & 1200 kcal for men is generally not recommended because of difficulty
in achieving nutritional adequacy.
Lifestyle modification & exercise programs are recommended
Severe lactase deficiency-avoid all milk containing foods
Moerate lactase deficiency-
Curd, butter-milk, cottage cheese, pro-biotic curd often tolerated.
Lactase enzymes for pre-treatment of lactose containing foods may be used
Acute renal failure (ARF)
Individualized for the degree of renal failure
Consider sodium, potassium, phosphorous and fluid restrictions if necessary
ARF with dialysis- 0.8g/kg/protein/day
Chronic kidney disease without dialysis
Consider for protein, sodium, potassium & fluid restrictions
Energy- 20-35kcal/kg/ ideal body weight/day
With hypertension and edema, restrict sodium (1-3g/d) & fluid.
Protein-0.8-.1.0g may be helpful
End Stage renal disease (ESRD) with dialysis
Individualised restriction of
sodium, potassium, phosphorous & fluid restrictions
Adjust energy for activity level and body weight
For weight maintenance-
20-35kcal/kg/ ideal body weight/day
For weight reduction-
20-55kcal/kg/ ideal body weight/day
1.1-1.4g/kg/ ideal body weight/day
1.2-1.5g/kg/ ideal body weight/day
& Peritoneal dialysis<
17mg/kg/ ideal body weight/day
Fluid –according to urine output & patient’s condition
Ground pureed or full liquid
Patients with fresh dental sutures should not use straws